Ming Vasen Inhaltsverzeichnis
Chinesisches Porzellan stellt einen zentralen Bestandteil der Kunst und Kultur Chinas dar. Es wurde zum Vorbild der Porzellanerzeugung in Europa und anderen Teilen der Erde. eBay Kleinanzeigen: Ming Vasen, Kleinanzeigen - Jetzt finden oder inserieren! eBay Kleinanzeigen - Kostenlos. Einfach. Lokal. Seine Blütezeit erlebte der Stil aber erst in der Ming-Dynastie; insbesondere die geradezu sprichwörtlich gewordene „Mingvase“ prägt die europäische. Mythos 9: Ming-Vasen sind unersetzbar. sothebys Eine kunstvoll verzierte chinesische Vase. Die Ming-Dynastie herrschte vom Jahrhundert bis. Top-Angebote für Ming Vase online entdecken bei eBay. Top Marken | Günstige Preise | Große Auswahl.
Top-Angebote für Ming Vase online entdecken bei eBay. Top Marken | Günstige Preise | Große Auswahl. Seine Blütezeit erlebte der Stil aber erst in der Ming-Dynastie; insbesondere die geradezu sprichwörtlich gewordene „Mingvase“ prägt die europäische. Deshalb kommen Chinesen nach London, Paris oder Köln und ersteigern chinesische Kunst. Vase aus der Ming Dynastie 16th century Ming.
Ming Vasen VideoMINECRAFT #060 ⇒Terra(cotta) for Ming(vasen)⇐ Let's Spiel Minecraft Überleben [Ger/HD] Anmelden mit. In der Kangxi-Epoche, deren Stücke als die kostbarsten gelten, herrschte ein Club Cooee De Schimmer vor, in der Regierungszeit Qianlongs indes eher eine bläuliche Färbung. Change it here DW. Ming Vasen soll es sich um das erste jemals nach Europa gelangte Stück chinesischer Porzellankunst handeln. In den kohlebeheizten Brennöfen des Nordens wurden bevorzugt stärker kaolinhaltige Porzellanmassen auch Schlicker bei hohen Temperaturen gebrannt. Aus dieser Zeit sind lediglich drei vollständige Stücke erhalten, jedoch wurden in der Nähe von Yangzhou Provinz Jiangsu auf das 8. Spartanisches Schwert Petuntse dient als Flussmittel und ist der einzige Bestandteil, der beim Brennen Tkijiji. Die Folge: erstaunliche Vielfalt. Anmelden Anmelden mit.
Chinese Longquan incised celadon jar Ming dynasty 16th century. Make offer - Chinese Longquan incised celadon jar Ming dynasty 16th century.
Make offer - 16 th centuary Chinese Ming large vase crackled glazed. Antique Chinese bronze vase very heavy. Make offer - Antique Chinese bronze vase very heavy.
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Buying format see all. All listings. Best Offer. Buy it now. Classified Ads. Item location see all. Initially blue from cobalt was almost the only pigment that could withstand the high temperature of a porcelain firing without discolouring, but gradually mostly during the Ming period others were found, or the extra cost of a second firing at a lower temperature to fix overglaze enamels was accepted.
Copper-reds could produce highly effective results underglaze, but at the cost of an extremely high proportion of greyish rejects, some of which remain in circulation, and thousands more of which have been found when kiln waste-heaps have been excavated.
Eventually underglaze blue and overglaze red became the usual way of achieving the same result. Overglaze painting, usually called "enamels", was widely used in the popular Cizhou ware stonewares, and was sometimes experimented with by kilns producing for the court, but not until the 15th century, under the Ming, was the doucai technique used for imperial wares.
This combined underglaze blue outlines with overglaze enamels in further colours. Two-colour wares, using underglaze blue and an overglaze colour, usually red, also produced very fine results.
A number of different other methods using coloured glazes were tried, often with images lightly incised into the body.
The fahua technique outlined areas of coloured decoration with raised trails of slip, and the subtle "secret" an hua technique decorated using very light incisions that could hardly be seen.
As the range of glaze colours expanded, the taste for monochrome wares, now in the new strong colours, returned, and with it a number of special glazing effects were developed, including the return of crackle and spotty effects made by blowing powdered pigment onto the piece.
The next development saw a group of 'families', or palettes of enamel colours used on Chinese porcelain. These are commonly known by their French names of famille jaune, noire, rose, verte , based on the dominant element in each colour palette are terms used to classify.
A large proportion of these were export wares but some were made for the Imperial court. Famille verte dish, Kangxi period Wucai vase, Shunzhi period , c.
Wucai export plate, Kangxi period , c. Soft paste famille rose flower holder, Jingdezhen , Qianlong period — Export porcelain with European figure, famille rose , first half of 18th century, Qing dynasty.
Double Peacock Dinner Service export : famille rose service with peacocks over a rock, late 18th century.
Moon flasks in famille rose , Jingdezhen, Yongzheng reign — Pottery classified as stoneware in the West is usually regarded as porcelain in Chinese terms, where a stoneware group is not recognised, and so the definition of porcelain is rather different, covering all vitrified high-fired wares.
Terms such as " porcellaneous " and "near-porcelain" are often used to reflect this, and cover wares that in Western terms lie on the border of stoneware and porcelain.
High-fired stonewares were numerous from very early on, and included many high-prestige wares, including those for imperial use, as well as great quantities of everyday utilitarian pots.
Usually they achieved their reputation by their glazes. Most of the celadon group, including Longquan celadons , especially earlier ones, can be classified as stoneware, and all classic Jian wares and Jizhou wares.
By contrast, the Yixing clay teapots and cups made from Yixing clay from Jiangsu province are usually left unglazed, and not washed after use, as the clay is believed to improve the taste of the tea, especially after it acquires a patina from long use.
There are in fact a number of different clays, giving a range of colours. The pots are unusual in that they are often signed by their potters, which is very rare in China, perhaps because they were associated with the literati culture, of which Jiangsu was a stronghold.
The earliest datable example is from a burial of in Nanjing. Elaborately decorated examples, often with a rectangular body, were exported to Europe from the 18th century, and these and pots for local use often had poems inscribed on them.
As well as teaware and desk objects such as brush-rests , fruit and other natural shapes were modelled as ornaments. Production continues today, generally using simpler shapes.
The very first imperial kiln was established in the thirty-fifth year of Hongwu. The law stated that, if the quantity of ceramics demanded was big, potters would be conscripted and worked in the imperial kilns in Nanjing ; if the quantity was small, the ceramics could be produced in private kilns in Raozhou.
The officials were responsible for making budgets, ensuring quality, and sending products back to the imperial court. Different rules on styles and sizes of the ceramics were put forward by the imperial court and must be strictly followed in the kilns.
After , imperial kilns were built, and carried out the imperial porcelain production on a large scale.
During the mid-Ming period, the demand for porcelain increased, the temporarily assigned officials were not able to handle the project. In the Xuande Period, the imperial factory in Jingdezhen was established.
There were wells, wood sheds, temples and lounges for potters. The imperial factory in Jingdezhen was not a mere production site but also included government administrative offices.
The imperial factory was divided into twenty-three departments, with each taking charge of different aspects of ceramics production.
This subdividing of the work so that a single piece of a vessel could pass through several hands led to potters not signing pieces as they did in the private kilns.
The division of labour also ensured a uniform style and size in the ceramics. The number of imperial kilns varies during the Ming period.
There were fewer than ten imperial factories in the fifteenth century, then the number increased to 58, later again to 62 and then decreased to Imperial orders demanded both individuality in the design of porcelain while also demanding large quantities of it.
Understandably, these demands came from different sectors of the court that expected particular designs. For example, yellow and green products decorated with mythical flying creatures were specifically requested by the Directorate for Palace Delicacies.
Many were forced to outsource their production to private kilns in order to meet court quotas. Those who managed the production at imperial factories understood the need for outsourcing as an answer to scalability.
Without cooperation and transparency between colleagues of different kilns, the satisfaction of the imperial court was in jeopardy.
Under the new system, a person would not be conscripted to work if he paid a certain amount of money. The late Ming period witnessed a drastic decline in the quality of pieces from the imperial kilns and a rise of private kilns.
The private kilns existed in the early Ming dynasty and their production constituted a part of the tax income of the government. Apart from making ceramics for people's everyday life, private kilns also accepted orders from the imperial court.
However, making and selling imperial style ceramics in private kilns was strictly forbidden. During the late Ming period, private kilns rose as imperial kilns declined.
Many famous workers escaped from the overworked and underpaid environment in the imperial kilns to private ones. Private kilns were more involved in commercials than the imperial kilns did.
In the late Ming period, several private kilns won great popularity among the literati, who were enthusiastic about the antique style porcelain.
In Jingdezhen, over 70 percent of the , families occupying the 6. The economic resurgence brought on by the porcelain industry carried along its own ramifications.
The story vividly describes a scene of domestic violence as a result of the wife, Yang Shi, purchasing a drink worth a penny to soothe her aching stomach.
Especially within work involving relatives or immediate family, one's own self worth and concept will be diminished in the face of success for the business.
The cut-throat mentality served to blur the family hierarchy within family-run industries to some degree. Porcelain production required both the construction of pots as well as the decorations done after.
Within a family-run pottery industry, the women took on this decorating role which helped to increase their value to the family. Men and women had to work harmoniously to produce good quality work and ultimately this spread throughout the porcelain industry.
In the early Ming dynasty, the population could be divided into three categories: military, craftsmen, and peasants. Within the craftsmen system, most of the craftsmen were from the previous dynasty, the Yuan dynasty; others were prisoners or unemployed people.
Craftsmen households members had to work throughout their lifetime, and their status was hereditary. There were two subcategories within the craftsmen system: military craftsmen, who were specialized in producing weapon; the ordinary craftsmen, who worked in various other industries.
Potters belonged to the latter subcategory. In the early Ming period, whenever the court demanded ceramics, labor would be conscripted by the court in different ways.
Usually, there were different types of workers in the imperial kilns. Most of the potters were selected from the craftsman households by the local government and served in the imperial kilns for three months in every four years for free; in other cases, workers were recruited from counties near the imperial kilns and paid regularly.
Usually the recruited workers were assigned to different departments. The imperial factory was divided into twenty-three departments, with each department having managers and workers.
The number of managers was usually less than five, and the number of workers was usually about ten to twenty. Making porcelain was not easy.
More than half the firings of every kiln resulted in spoilt pieces and were thrown away in the neighborhood of Jingdezhen, resulting in a huge dump of porcelain fragments that still exist today.
When the kiln was in action, it was important to control the fire, which ideally should produce a constant temperature.
The proper choice, preparation, colouring, firing, and the slip should be made on every stage of the production.
Potters were punished for delaying, smuggling, producing inferior goods, and other misconducts. Overworked and underpaid, many potters refused or fled from being conscripted into the imperial kilns.
By the time of Xuande period, the number of potters escaping from the corvee was about five thousand; in the first year of Jingtai, the number reached about thirty thousand.
There was also a great discrepancy in the number of workers in different departments. Sometimes private kiln workers from the corresponding departments would serve as temporary workers in the imperial kilns.
To regulate the potters, the government reformed the policy so that the potters would not have to work in the imperial kilns if they pay certain amount of money per month.
Unable to stand the hard law and the heavy work, many talented workers found their new positions in the private kilns.
The imperial kilns suffered from the lost in talented potters and labors, and the quality of the porcelain declined dramatically. Starting from the ninth year of Jiajing, a new policy was carried out.
The government prepared their own materials, utilized the private kilns to make porcelain, and paid the private kilns based on the number of porcelain produced.
However, the state was usually not able to pay the amount required. The industrialization of Chinese porcelain during the Ming dynasty was not possible without a post-production system that honored scalability as well as scarcity.
Individual retail sales were important to kilns but wholesale orders were of even higher importance. Without these orders that required months to a year of work to complete, demand would have definitely been lacking.
Merchants entered provinces with little knowledge of how porcelain trade was conducted. They relied on brokers to introduce them to reliable kilns and ultimately negotiate prices.
Once established, merchants took on negotiating matters. In particular, brokers helped alleviate risk for many kilns by analyzing the integrity of buyers.
Due to the guild-esque nature between brokers and kiln owners, guilty knowledge of the buyer's secrets was common talk. Potters claimed the license to know who the bad buyers were.
This dangerous knowledge had the ability to ruin a buyer's reputation but on the contrary contributed to the success of kilns. In observing court orders, porcelain was required for culinary, religious, and display purposes.
Since porcelain was often used once and thrown away by the court, imperial orders were at a continuous flow in porcelain factories. From their respective kilns, fine porcelain was distributed over sea and land to Southeast Asia, Japan and the Middle East.
The magnitude of foreign trade can be understood in a record showing over sixteen million pieces circulating through a Dutch East India Company.
Dozens of carts sent from Mongolia, Manchuria, Persia and Arabic countries were loaded in the Ming capital full of porcelain and other Chinese goods.
Some carts reached thirty feet in height which must have required extreme attention to avoid broken porcelain. Due to the hollowness of porcelain vases, they were filled with soil and beans.
In order to effectively transport large amounts of porcelain, as much space in carts must have been used indicated by the thirty foot high carts.
Knowing the risk that came with placing fragile porcelain next to and on top of one another, handlers of the porcelain mitigated that risk through the soil and bean method.
Like the silk industry, the porcelain industry claimed merit for its mass-producing capabilities. Potters from lower economic backgrounds stuck true to their repetitive methods mostly due to the high risk in attempting new and not tested methods.
Trying new techniques could result in the loss of an entire month's worth of work so for these potters, changing their method was not a luxury they could afford.
For potters within Jingdezhen, the code that governed the way their products were created was greatly influenced by international markets.
Foreign trade was not always beneficial for potters because the further away that products had to go from the source Ex: Jingdezhen the more vulnerable cargo became.
In examining a report of a Spanish voyage, about a fifth of a Chinese ship crew were killed when met by a Spanish voyager of the name Juan de Salcedo.
Overall, international markets offered great potential for potters seeking greater wealth but unfortunately came with a vulnerability to crime.
Trade on an international scale required organization between chiefs and potters. Throughout the Southeast Asian trading ports, chiefs had the power to set port fees as well as control interactions between elite merchants and foreign traders.
Potters of luxury porcelain would have to work under the rules set by the chiefs and thus their relationship constructed a hierarchy. Chinese potters have a long tradition of borrowing design and decorative features from earlier wares.
Whilst ceramics with features thus borrowed might sometimes pose problems of provenance , they would not generally be regarded as either reproductions or fakes.
However, fakes and reproductions have also been made at many times during the long history of Chinese ceramics and continue to be made today in ever-increasing numbers.
In addition, the reign marks of earlier emperors typically from the Ming were often put on Qing wares, which scholars are often inclined to treat as a mark of respect or aspiration rather than an attempt to deceive, although they clearly did often mislead centemporaries, and confuse understanding.
The most widely known test is the thermoluminescence test, or TL test, which is used on some types of ceramic to estimate, roughly, the date of last firing.
Thermoluminescence dating is carried out on small samples of pottery drilled or cut from the body of a piece, which can be risky and disfiguring. For this reason, the test is rarely used for dating finely potted, high-fired ceramics.
TL testing cannot be used at all on some types of ceramics, particularly high-fired porcelain. Water jar from the Neolithic period, Yangshao culture ca.
Painted pot with frog motifs, Majiayao culture — BC. Painted pot of Majiayao culture — BC. Large grey mug, Henan Longshan culture , Late Neolithic period ca.
White pottery pitcher from the Shandong Longshan culture , — BC. White pottery pot with geometric design, Shang dynasty — BC.
A pottery bell from the Warring States period — BC. A painted pottery dou vessel with a dragon design from the Warring States period BC.
Ceramic statues with polychrome , from the 2nd century BC, Han dynasty. An earthenware goose pourer with lacquerware paint designs, Western Han dynasty , late 3rd century BC to early 1st century AD.
A Han celadon pot with mountain-shaped lid and animal designs. Western Han dynasty terracotta vases with acrobats.
An Eastern Han glazed ceramic statue of a horse with halter and bridle headgear, late 2nd century or early 3rd century AD. A Western Han glazed pottery ding with taotie -faced door knocker designs.
An Eastern Han ceramic candle -holder with animal figurines. A celadon ceramic candle holder in the shape of a crouched lion , Three Kingdoms period — , made in Eastern Wu.
A celadon hunping jar with sculpted designs of architecture , from the Jin dynasty A black-glazed wine or water jug with a rooster -headed spout, Jin dynasty A footed earthenware lamp with lions , from either the Northern Dynasties period or Sui dynasty , 6th century.
Covered footed earthenware vessel from the Northern Qi — Northern Dynasties lotus vessel. A Western Wei — ceramic figurine of a military officer.
A ceramic cavalryman with a horn, Northern Wei — Grey stoneware jar with high-fired glaze. Sui dynasty The jar is a utilitarian object with lugs on its shoulder to secure a cloth or rattan lid.
A rounded ceramic plate with sancai "three colours" glaze, 8th century. A ceramic offering plate with "three colours" glaze, decorated with a bird and trees, 8th century.
Earthenware figures of female attendants, with coloured lead glazes, Tang dynasty, early 8th century. Funerary vase and cover, green-glazed Longquan celadon , Northern Song — A Longquan celadon vase from the Song dynasty.
Southern Song dynasty celadon vase with dish shaped mouth, Longquan celadon. Longquan celadon wares, 13th century.
Tea bowls in stoneware , 12th to 13th century. Left Jizhou ware , right Jian ware. Qingbai teapot, from Jingdezhen.
Ding ware porcelain dish with transparent glaze and carved decoration, 11th-early 12th century. Qingbai box with flower medallions.
Unusual painted Ding ware bottle with iron pigment over transparent colourless glaze, 11th century. One of the famous set of lifesize Yixian glazed pottery luohans , sancai , early 12th century.
Northern Song dynasty white-glazed baby boy pillow. A glazed stoneware pillow from the Song dynasty, Cizhou ware.
Porcelain pillow Jin dynasty — , Cizhou ware. Celadon shoulder pot, late Yuan dynasty, with relief peaches, lotuses, peonies, willows, and palms.
A Jin or Yuan dynasty "Official Jun ware " stoneware dish, 13thth century. Longquan celadon , 13thth century. Covered jar, Longquan celadon , 14th century.
Sancai -glazed Chinese ceramic incense burner , Yuan dynasty. Guanyin statuette, Yuan dynasty. Guanyin Goddess of Mercy with children, statuette made of Dehua porcelain ware.
Dish, Yongle reign , porcelain with underglaze blue. Porcelain plate from , during the Chongzhen period — Porcelain vase from the reign of the Jiajing Emperor — A Ming glazed earthenware statue of a seated buddha.
Wanli period covered jar in green and yellow. Transitional porcelain , midth century. Transitional porcelain , c. Famille rose plate from a famous set made for the 60th birthday of the Kangxi Emperor in Vase, Kangxi reign — , painted with famille jaune enamels on the biscuit and on the glaze.
Vase in the form of a Pomegranate, Yongzheng reign — , "claire-de-lune glaze". Famille rose dish with flowering prunus , Copper-red porcelain from the reign of the Yongzheng Emperor — Porcelain from the reign of the Qianlong Emperor — Porcelain plate, Qianlong Emperor — , for export to the Dutch.
Snuff bottle, 9. Famille rose vase with peaches one of a pair , Qianlong reign. White porcelain from the reign of the Qianlong Emperor — Pair of famille rose vases with landscapes of the four seasons, Porcelain vase decorated with flowers and birds made at Jingdezhen , Jiangxi ,.
This type of ware, known for its colourful decoration that covers most of the surface of the piece, was popular as an export ware.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Ming Vase. For general information about the material, see Porcelain.
Further information: Porcelain trade in Qing China. Main article: Tang dynasty tomb figures. Main article: Jian ware.
Main article: Jizhou ware. Main article: Ding ware. Main article: Ru ware. Main article: Jun ware.
Main article: Guan ware. Main article: Ge ware. Main article: Qingbai ware. Main article: Blue and white porcelain. Main article: Blanc de Chine.
Main article: Famille jaune, noire, rose, verte. Examples of famille verte works. Examples of famille rose works.
Ceramic tomb statuette of a cavalryman and horse, Western Han dynasty. An Eastern Han pottery tomb model of residential towers joined by a bridge.
A footed Western Han white ceramic wine warmer with animal-head figurines decorating its lid. Sancai -horse and figurine, Tang dynasty.
A ceramic offering plate with six eaves and "three colours" glaze, 8th century. Celadon amphora with dragon handles.
Vase with famille rose enamels, Qianlong reign. Paul Rado. Pergamon Press, Institute of Ceramics. Oxford University Press, Kuala Lumpur. Cambridge University Press.
The New York Times. Chinese Ceramics. The New Standard Guide. The Han Dynasty made the first ceramics to survive in appreciable quantities.
Thames and Hudson, London. Chinese Art. Asian Art Museum. Archived from the original on Seattle Art Museum. Retrieved 29 March The Walters Art Museum.
Chinese Glazes. Black, London. Watt, "Antiquarianism and Naturalism," in Possessing the Past , pp. The British Museum. See also Clunas, Superfluous Things , pp.
Retrieved Chinese Porcelain. Octopus Books, London. A Handbook of Chinese Ceramics. Metropolitan Museum of Art.